If there is an outgoing message for a team, the operation section encrypts it.
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The operator then transmits it to the team during the team's next scheduled communication time. HF radio is the surveillance team's primary means of communication with the base radio station. Data-burst equipment is used to shorten transmission times. Encryption systems are used to preclude enemy interception.
In addition to HF radio, teams use tactical satellite assets when available. Communication site considerations are security, cover and concealment, space to erect an antenna, and an escape route. Teams transmit and receive routine messages during the scheduled communication times. For messages requiring transmission outside the time schedule, the team first tries to transmit on the designated team frequency.
If communication cannot be achieved on the team frequency, the team then transmits on the HF guard frequency. Internal communication within the team is maintained using secure FM and visual and sound signals.
See Appendix E. Electronic warfare is a military action used to prevent the enemy's use of the electromagnetic spectrum, while retaining friendly use of the spectrum. This is accomplished through both offensive and defensive measures. Offensive electronic warfare operations include the use of electronic warfare support measures and electronic countermeasures. Defensive electronic warfare operations include electronic counter-countermeasures ECCM. ECCM are actions taken to ensure effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum despite electronic warfare activity by the enemy.
ECCM have two categories: preventive and remedial.
WEATHER SUPPORT FOR ARMY TACTICAL OPERATIONS, Military Manual
Long-range surveillance missions are specific, require detailed planning, and support the collection plan of the supported corps or division. All LRSU missions are carefully planned and coordinated to prevent duplication of effort, conflicting requirements, and the possibility of overlapping or intermingling with other friendly forces in the area. Corps ensure LRSC missions do not conflict with subordinate division LRSDs, between divisions, or with the echelons above corp special operations forces. Divisions ensure LRSD missions do not conflict with friendly forces working in their area. The LRSU commander or his representative liaison officer, operations officer, operations NCO, or platoon leader assists the intelligence and operations sections of the division or corps headquarters in the initial planning for LRS missions.
An LRS team normally requires 24 to 48 hours planning time to execute a mission. The recommended planning time is often not available. The following minimum-essential information is provided for hasty mission execution:. Special Considerations. The reverse planning sequence is used during planning. Among the many planning considerations, the following are particular to LRS operations.
Detailed Planning. G2, G3, and LRSU operations personnel prepare the detailed mission folder according to guidance from the commander and the controlling headquarters. Selected team leaders, a representative from the units providing transportation, SEAD, and fire support are briefed early in the planning phase. They should also participate in the detailed planning that follows.
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During briefings, team leaders are furnished minimal information about friendly units to maintain OPSEC. Essential details of the LRS team plan normally include the following. Throughout planning, coordination is made with the following elements at the TOC of the controlling headquarters. Intelligence Element.
- United States Army Field Manual 7-93 Long-Range Surveillance Unit Operations/Chapter 2.
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The detailed patrol plan is given to the G2 element. An update on the enemy situation, terrain, and weather forecasts must be added to the mission folder. A final check is made of the LRSU plans and the plans of other information-gathering agencies to make sure all collection elements of the unit's intelligence plan are coordinated. Coordination is made with other units and staff elements. Operations Element. The patrol plan is also given to the G3 element.
The latest information is obtained on the friendly situation. For security reasons, only essential information is provided to the team. The G3 element is responsible for initial coordination with the unit providing transportation for the LRS team.
FM 1-100 Army Aviation Operations
The G3 element coordinates as necessary with the division air management element, Air Force liaison, and naval gunfire liaison. Division or Corps Fire Support Element. The location of the team is coordinated with all fire support elements to ensure personnel safety. Constant coordination ensures the team's safety during employment of conventional nuclear or chemical weapons.
Procedures are set up for processing LRS team calls for fire and informing teams of planned fires and passive protection measures to be adopted.
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In addition, requirements for target damage assessment and reporting procedures are coordinated, and a fire support plan is completed for each LRS team. Team locations must be coordinated with division fire support coordinator so that the location can be designated as no-fire areas or restrictive-fire areas. This information is disseminated to units on a need-to-know basis.
NBC Element. The NBC element is given the location of all committed teams, and plans are coordinated for monitoring requirements in the area of the team's operation. Information on contaminated areas is distributed as necessary. The warning order is based on the commander's guidance. The surveillance platoon leader in the LRSC designates a team for the mission and issues a warning order to the team. In the LRSD, the commander selects the team. Avoiding detection by the enemy and the populace is a prime requisite for the success of LRS operations.
Control of information pertaining to past, present, and future LRS missions is important. Periodic security orientations and inspections, including communication elements and procedures, are conducted regularly to make sure that OPSEC requirements are understood and followed. Tactical security and deception measures necessary to teams and their support elements include the following:. Radio intercept and radio direction finding are the primary methods of gathering intelligence through electronic means.
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Radio intercept entails monitoring and understanding message content. Radio direction finding locates transmitting stations by tracking their signals. Many potential adversaries have an extensive intercept capability for electronic transmissions. They can intercept transmissions within the following distances from the forward edge of the battle area:.
Ground-based and airborne intercept equipment available throughout the world is technically sophisticated, rugged, and easy to maintain. Enemy forces must be considered to have a modern intercept capability. Enemy direction-finding capability is comparable to their intercept capability. Various types of mobile, directional antenna systems can be used in a radio direction-finding role.
Forward-area mobile elements include a VHF tactical radio direction finder with an Adcock antenna, as well as the pole dish radar direction finder. Tactical FM radios operating on low power can be detected by radio direction-finding units for more than 10 kilometers and high-power signals can be detected at distances up to 40 kilometers. Radio direction finding is usually accurate within plus or minus 3. Figure illustrates enemy ground-based electronic intercept and direction-finding capabilities. Once begun, the targeting sequence can continue even if friendly communication cease.
For example, one unit may re- quire warnings of winds in excess of 15 to 20 knots, while another may not be adversely af- fected by wind until the speed reaches 35 to 40 knots or more. Weather forecasts may be presented in coded numerical , graphical pictorial , or written plain language format.
Normally, weather forecasts for use by army units will be issued in plain language form. Climatological Information Climatological information deals with weather conditions and variations from normal for a par- ticular place or area during a specified period of the year. Two types of climatological information are : climatic studies and climatic summaries.
A climatic study is derived from the applica- tion of climatological information in a manner to reveal the probable effects of climate and weather elements on a specific operation or activity. Refer also to fig- ures and for a list of the weather ele- ments usually found in a climatic study.
This summary highlights those features of the climate which may impose problems in military opera- tions, and it is of value to the field commander in preparing to meet such problems. Climatic summaries and studies supplement information contained in intelligence surveys. The summaries should be available to a com- mander at least 6 months prior to the period cov- ered by the report.