How the historical witnesses becoming the frame sponsors memorize the past event is not always be accurate in describing such event.
Moreover, the news media is still possible to be able to access the historical witnesses. More often, media has to be reliant on the secondary sources such as those inherited from the ones involved in historical studies, historians and elites of government in which the secondary sources are possible to have shared the hegemonic collective memory. Edy affirmed that memory is an incomplete representation from the past though we always treat the memory as the past itself.
In fact, many scholars of memory antagonize the history from memory study either as collective memory or as individual one since this study have been more on the surface. Gray and Oliver stated that the scholars of memory frequently contrast the history by correlating the memory to the archaic, organic, and spiritual quality differentiating the memory with the analytical practices on history. A collective memory can be hegemonic in one society. Public believed in certain collective memory as the only right thing. One of them is in term of her definition about the hegemonic. Misztal, In the definition of Mistztal, hegemony contains the element of social and cultural domination, ruling group, and the attempt to rule all social elements through an ideology that can be accepted by all social elements.
Hegemony according Misztal has inspired a typology he compiled in term of the perspective of the scholars on the collective memory. Memory functioned as the organized practices is designed to reproduce a social and political order as a factual material for propaganda Misztal, ibid. The task of the memory is to provide an identity and belief or uniting values. On those identity, belief and values, the programmed political objectives and the actions are sourced Misztal, ibid. Similar with hegemonic ideology, the hegemonic memory is created through a real process of contestation in historical field leading a part of memory to be marginalized and isolated, while other memories that can be in line with the ideology of rulers can be sustainable Misztal, State and a variety of cultural or educational institutions are the strongest institutions in making the construction of hegemonic collective memory imperishable Misztal, ibid.
The alteration of the hegemonic memory is the counter-memory. An equal event that can be formulated in any various versions by various groups that make the images of the past event and the participation of the groups has changed as time passes Misztal, ibid. Framing Analysis Method The technique of framing analysis applied in this research was framing analysis in accordance to Gamson and Lasch , stating that media framing will be seen when the analysis is emphasized on observing and interpreting the elements of the prominent news texts.
The elements of the idea in culture do not appear discretely but are gathered in one interpretive package Gamson and Lasch, 3. Those different elements support and strengthen to each other.
Commonly, the establishment of a full package can be supported by a prominent single element. If Tempo exposed the tragedy, it means that Tempo treated a past event — not a contemporary event actually reported. Ideology worked as an attempt of Tempo to memorize the tragedy. Table 1. In contrast, in other three editions, Tempo of New Order made the past time as the main reportage.
The edition of Tempo in , , and intentionally exposed some issues such as why PKI chose September to do rebellion; what motive did stimulate and why the rebellion could easily be failed see Table 2.
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Tempo provided some spaces among its sentences to show some contradictive frames. Such frames were not merely provided in Tempo in New Order era exposing the retrospective issues Table 4. However, Tempo was not explicit to criticize that narration. Hence, many frames that appeared during New Order era competed and were contradictive in each edition. At last, what is more prominent is a set of analyses shaping the hegemonic frame that tended to confirm the narration of the New Order. The frames are summarized in Table 4. In the retrospective news on the historical context, the tragedy of has been rememorized as a bad collective experience and memory in which the contemporary impacts legitimated the contemporary government policies.
However, the roots of the mass murder towards PKI were as a result of the bad relation of PKI with the social elements in any areas. In the edition of , , and , the frames regarding G30S-PKI were still stable to expose the situation in post- G30S-PKI in Indonesia, particularly in the genre of the historical context , , some parts of the edition Meanwhile, in the edition of and , the frames started specifically to again discuss about the events towards and at the day of G30S-PKI. Table 4 illustrates the elements of the frame of Tempo of New Order.
Frame and ideology of Tempo Reformation can be considered to fight the memory of New Order heritage. Similarly, state does not reconstruct the history on the subject in school or in sites such as Monument of LubangBuayaand Pulau Buru. What is implied then is the genre of the retrospective news were mostly the historical reconstruction and character profiles - not historical context.
It does not mean that Tempo Reformation ignored the contemporary issues that are still being faced by the families of the missing, killed, or prisoned PKI actors or the families of the generals that are still becoming the victims.
However, the contemporary events were not the starting points of Tempo Reformation in framing the past events. In the retrospective text, Tempo Reformation tended to open up more opportunities for the interpretation of the G30S; one of which was by thrusting some alternative sources in addition to BukuPutih White Book and the sources that were agreed with the New Order regime. In addition to military sources, some written sources such as the academic or biographical works and the informants of direct descent of PKI or the ones of General Council members and the actors dominated the journalistic authority sources of Tempo Reformation, different from the New Order dominated by government and military sources.
The efforts to maintain a balance can be seen in the use of overlapping resources such as the descent of Aidit, PKI and descent of Nasution, Council-General in the same edition issue though in a different article. In terms of genre and the use of past event in the news, Tempo New Order and Tempo Reformation showed some differences.
Therefore, the tragedy was the main important event presented by Tempo Zelizer, and memories delivered and how Tempo Reformation delivered more competed memory inherited from New Order that now is still present in Reformation. It was not only in the transformation of the genre tendencies and the use of past tragedy in Tempo New Order and Tempo Reformation, a transformation also appeared in frames appearing in retrospective news in both two eras.
Tempo Reformation clearly showed the extent of the journalism agency in reconstructing memory and frame in terms of the tragedy rather than more presenting the contemporary inducement news news peg Edy Based on the existing findings, retrospective news Tempo New Order showed tendencies in the emergence of hegemonic frame and memory. There would be a counter-frame existence edition of , May , and October , however the counter-frame did not perfectly appear, making it less prominent than hegemonic frame. The weak counter-frame was due to the statements that supported the counter-frame was then followed by a denial and negation statement.
Such negation became something common to be practiced by Tempo New Order in order to avoid some accusations of partiality opposed by the authorities Steele, In addition, the candidacy of counter-frame did not use a set of the intact and consistent framing, thus making it less prominent compared to the hegemonic frames. Those frames maintained a consensus that the further events - mass murder was not necessary to be openly discussed openly and should be forgotten.
Counter-frame in retrospective news of Tempo New Order became apparent in Reformation. As stated by Misztal , Tempo Reforms offered an alternative view for the past time that opposed the dominant representation on the past events. What are the alternative views? Although the official views of the New Order government were not changed much, many alternative sources began to openly circulate in society, say, various publications of the biography of the historical witnesses or academic works that have some views different from official sources.
June, When memory challenges history: public contestation of the past in post-Suharto Indonesia.
Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, 28 2 , Croteau, D. London: Sage Publications. Doka, K.
Doka eds. Edy, JA. Temple University Press.
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Gamson, William A. Hearman, V. Herlambang, W. Heryanto, A. State terrorism and political Identity in Indonesia fatally belonging. New York: Routledge. Misztal, B. Theories of Social Remembering. Berkshire: Open University Press. Pellegrini, C. Sorensen, K. Twomey, JL.