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We would like to see our ideas, and heterodox ideas in general, more broadly debated. There are some encouraging signals in this direction, especially among young researchers. Research jobs are increasingly precarious, competitive, and poorly paid. The deterioration of working conditions in the research field is daunting for women, especially for those who do not conform to mainstream research methods and themes. Should this be a concern for governments? It is important to give more space in economics departments and opportunities to publish to heterodox economists.

They should be able to pursue their theoretical questions and perspectives more freely, without the fear of being marginalized form the debate. Unfortunately, the economic profession has been and still is particularly resistant to accept pluralism and the coexistence of different schools. We are still too far from what Doyne Farmer from the Santa Fe Institute asked for, namely to judge theories by their empirical relevance and empirical validation, not by their cultural lineage.

I believe that this should a matter of concern for governments because limiting the scope and the pool of ideas in research damages the quality of the advice to public policy. Resources might not be allocated in the most efficient way. Academics have incentives to choose their field of research on the basis of what topics are more likely to be published rather than on the quest for solutions to practical policy problems.

What do you think of the creation of databases of underrepresented economists and guidelines to promote diversity in the professions? Do you see any risk related to those activities? For instance, some point out that those do not address the problem of pluralism. Others say that, being non-exhaustive, they fail their purpose. Having guidelines to promote diversity in journals and economic departments might help in the effort to encourage pluralism.

English school of international relations theory

Perhaps more important than a database is to find new ways to diffuse the research of heterodox economists and to have more programs in universities and research centers in which heterodox ideas are systematically discussed. I think it is very important to promote that more women study economics.

Women economists were at the core of the development of feminist economics which is an important part of heterodox and pluralist economic theories. Feminist economics have challenged key notions of economic theory such as what is work, how wealth is created and distributed and how economies function based on a sexual division of labor. Feminist economics helped to make visible the interdependencies between the macro, meso, and micro levels of the economy, and to understand the interactions between monetarized economy and unpaid care and domestic work.

ECLAC has incorporated and applied the analysis of feminist economics in the region and has advanced research and policy recommendations on this field. For instance, satellite account calculations of unpaid work have been a powerful tool that we have used in the region to assess the monetary value of unpaid household work. It is crucial that more women engage in economics to continue to push the boundaries of the discipline and provide new tools to understand the complexities on how gender power relations shape economic systems and international relations.

Pluralism and Democratic Participation: What Kind of Citizen are Citizens Invited to be?

Orsola Costantini and Giulia Zacchia: As the President of the American Economic Association, you led initiatives to encourage young women to study economics, a commitment you maintain to this day. Why do you think more women should study economics? Claudia Goldin: When I was president and for several years after , I led an initiative to better incentivize and encourage undergraduate women to major in economics.

The rationale was that undergraduates do not always make their major decisions using the best or the right information. Bad decisions are made using bad and incomplete information. We are providing good and more accurate information about economics as a discipline and as part of a career path.

Normative and Empirical Approaches

What is your view of the lack of diversity in economics and the possibility of economists from underrepresented groups to be successful in their field? Economists, and those in other disciplines and professional fields, need to be diverse for all the reasons that often get talked about. Particularly in economics, where men and women specialize in somewhat different fields, it is even more important to obtain balance in our research. Has being a woman affected your research choices? I know that economics fields e.

We have lots of evidence on that. In that sense, the research is different in terms of its focus and questions. Methodology may be another difference since that also differs by field. You have worked on education policies. How would you say the current institutional policies, working conditions, and funding opportunities impact on the career of women in the field? Can things be improved?

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Women are disproportionately teachers at the elementary and secondary levels in just about every country. INET research shows that the current system of hiring and promotion based on quantitative criteria such as citation counts and a hierarchy of publication outlets discourages students from working on less popular themes and methods, and induces the proliferation of short-breathed research works and misconduct such as strategic citations.

I see a lot of highly creative work being done. I also see some less creative work. If anything, the real problem is that the usual underrepresented groups are NOT economists. I have worked to attract various groups to become economists through the Research Scholar Initiative program at Harvard. We scour undergraduate programs and the AEA summer program for those who would not ordinarily apply to graduate programs because their undergraduate training was weak.

We bring a small group to Harvard each year and provide guidance, courses, and research experience. To what extent do you feel a glass ceiling exists in your academic and professional environment?

Conference on the New Religious Pluralism in World Politics

How would you describe the problem of discrimination in your field of research today? Has it evolved since you started working as a researcher? Second, his pluralism makes it possible to push for the further pluralization of inquiry in world politics, for example by conceiving of such inquiry as a humane science that responds to pressing social concerns and is explicitly oriented toward social reconstruction that enlarges our experience, in all its protean diversity.

While Jackson may not want to push the boundaries of inquiry as far, or in the direction, that I do, his inclusive orientation is invigorating and his arguments challenging. Jackson essentially asks all of us studying world politics to become ontologists, at least at an amateur level — and his books shows why such a demand is rewarding. What I would add is a call for all of us to become ethicists, at least at an amateur level. Rather, the important point is that the ambiguity this creates regarding the prescriptive consequences of his analysis should be stated more clearly.

Works Cited.

After Pluralism | Columbia University Press

William E. Donald F. Koch, ed.

Peter T. Rather, he argues that empirical inquiry cannot adjudicate between the rival value commitments which underpin that inquiry although it can help to reveal their practical implications. And that, it seems to me, is correct. So where does the problem arise? Like Like. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.