Manual Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry: An Introduction

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View on ScienceDirect. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: Elsevier. Published Date: 5th January Page Count: View all volumes in this series: Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry. For regional delivery times, please check When will I receive my book? Sorry, this product is currently out of stock.

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We can get you to greater productivity at an affordable price. Note: You clicked on an external link, which has been disabled in order to keep your shopping session open. Search Thermo Fisher Scientific. Search All. See Navigation. Profile, screen, identify and quantify a wide variety of compounds with confidence. The Schematic diagram of ESI is shown figure 2. In Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization APCI liquid solvent containing sample is nebulised through narrow capillary tube and nebulized into large chamber.

In large heating chamber the evaporation of solvent takes place at atmospheric pressure and small droplets are produced. The ionization takes place. The ions are then transfer the charges to molecules through chemical reactions. The resulting ions are pass through capillary orifice of mass analyser.

It is widely used for less polar and non-polar analytes having moderate molecular weights [11]. Plasma spray is modification of thermo spray. In Thermo spray the liquid sample solution is passed through capillary tube which is heated and which causes the evaporation of solvent. The charged droplets are formed. Due to evaporation of solvent the droplets becomes smaller and smaller. The density of electric charge on the surface of droplets increases. The resulting ions are then passed into mass analyser with electrostatic voltage system [8]. The Plasma spray itself does not produce ions but the ions produce in thermo spray, with the help of corona discharge or plasma the number of ions can be increased.

The electric discharge induces the more ionization in the neutral molecules. This enhancement increases the ionization of molecule. The plasma spray technique is more sensitive and it is widely used for analysis in clinical and medicine [12].

Kr lamp generates high energy photons which are used for excitation and ionization of molecules. The range of energy is selected to minimize the ionization of analytes. Particle Beam Ionization: The Browner and his colleagues has developed particle beam interface to separate the solvent from solute with minimum loss of solutes. The liquid is injected with helium gas, due to this the spray of liquid droplets are formed with high velocity.

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Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry: An Introduction | Analytical Techniques in the Sciences

The liquid drops from nebulizer passes through heating chamber, where the solvent begins to evaporate and liquid droplets becomes smaller and smaller. The spray of liquid droplets exits through heating chamber as a particle beam. FAB is used for large and thermally unstable molecules. It used for surfactants and proteins [16,17]. Generally mass Analyser used is on its speed, time, rate and its reaction.

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Quadrupole Mass Analyser: It is the most useful and commonly used mass Analyser. It consists of two plain of parallel rods which are located between an ion sources and a detector. The mass Analyser i. The linear Quadrupole mass Analyser consists of four hyperbolic or cylindrical rods that are placed parallel in a radial array. The ions introduced into Quadrupole by mean of low accelerating potential.

The ions are oscillating in plane perpendicular to the rod length as they trends through Quadruple filter. The resolution depends on ratio of DC and RF potentials. The unit mass resolution means that mass accurately is seldom better than 0. The schematic diagram of quadruple mass analyser is shown below figure 3.

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The time Flight is most robust used for wide variety of ions sources and inlet systems. In this is no any magnetic field, maintenance and calibration it is just simple electrostatic and straight forward. The ions are extracted from source and subjected to an accelerating voltage. The time taken to travel the length of the drift or flight to be depends upon the mass of ion and its charge [20]. When the ions trends towards the detector the lighter ions will strikes the detector first [18]. Scanning of all the ions are detected simultaneously.

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The schematic diagram of Time Flight mass analyser is shown below figure 4. Ion trap mass Analyser is high resolution, high sensitivity and multiple product ion scan capability.

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A Quadrupole ion trap is a three dimensional ion trap. It consists of cylindrical ring electrode to which Quadrupole field is applied. Another two are end capped electrodes [21]. One end cap electrode has single small central aperture through which electrons or ions are introduced into the trap while other one has several apertures or holes through which ions are passed to a detector. A Helium bath gas is present in the trap to stabilize the ion trajectories.


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The collision takes place between helium bath gas and ions. Due to this the motion of ions increases the trapping efficiency of analyser. The schematic diagram shown below figure 5. The ions entered in chamber are trapped in circular orbits. The ions are accelerated by both electric field and magnetic field. Due to this the ions get excited and generate time dependent current. The detector is an important tool of mass spectrometer that produces the current that is proportional to the number of ions strike it. Once the ions are formed passed from analyser they have to be detected and transformed into signal.


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  8. Below listed are the type of detectors commonly used. In this the ions collectors are placed at fixed point in mass spectrometer. All the ions are focused upon the detector situated at single point. The arrivals of ions can be recorded by the flow of electric current and the data can be recorded. The electric current flow is proportional to the ions arriving at point ion detector.


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