Even so, people with OI need to get adequate calcium in their diets to develop peak bone mass and prevent bone loss. Bone loss from any cause calcium related, inactivity related, age related makes OI bones even more fragile. These guidelines were developed for people of average height and weight. A person with OI may have lower calcium needs. A measurement of calcium in a hour urine collection may help determine if a person with OI is getting too much or too little calcium.
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If you are unable to get the appropriate amount of calcium for your body size and age through your diet, a calcium supplement may be needed. Calcium supplements are also sometimes recommended for people taking certain medications such as bisphosphonates. Check with your doctor to determine if a supplement is necessary. Low-fat and skim milk have the same amount of calcium as whole milk, but significantly fewer calories. In addition to dairy products, calcium is also found in foods such as broccoli, kale, some dried beans and nuts and soy-based products.
Manufacturers are increasingly fortifying other foods, such as cereal and bread, with calcium. Most brands of calcium fortified orange juice have the same amount of calcium as milk. Vitamin D and Bone Health. Vitamin D is necessary to help the body absorb calcium and make bone. New research suggests that it may play a role in the immune system, and that low levels may contribute to chronic pain.
Nutrition for bones - Royal Osteoporosis Society
Most of the vitamin D in our bodies is made from sunlight absorbed through the skin. Vitamin D is also found in many fortified foods and in dietary supplements in the form called D A blood test that measures 25 OH D is the only way to tell if a person has adequate levels of Vitamin D in their system. Studies suggest that many people have low vitamin D levels, especially in the winter. The latest research supports the following guidelines for vitamin D for people with OI. Other Nutrients Vitamin C has many functions in the body, including the production of healthy connective tissues, and the healing of wounds and fractures.
Vitamin C is abundant in many fruits such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and cantaloupe and vegetables including tomato, bell peppers, and sweet potato. It is fairly easy to get adequate Vitamin C through the diet. There is some evidence that Vitamin C tablets can increase the risk of kidney stones in people who already have high levels of calcium in the urine. Because high urine calcium affects some people with OI, check with a physician before taking Vitamin C supplements.
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Guidelines for a Healthy Diet The U. Beverage recommendations stress the need for water every day. Fruit juices should make up only one of the fruit servings per day. Sodas carbonated beverages should be limited because they replace milk or water and are usually high in sugar and salt.
The phosphorus in sodas also decreases calcium absorption. It is important to remember that this pyramid was developed for people of average body size and activity level. Children and adults with OI can get guidance from their physician or a dietitian regarding the appropriate number of daily servings for their body size and activity level.
Resources There are many web sites with nutrition information and recipes to help people make healthy food choices. A sample is listed below. Five-a-Day Site www.
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It includes recipes. Food and Nutrition Information Center www. Department of Agriculture, which publishes the Food Guide Pyramid, offers this resource to explain the Pyramid and other nutrition guidelines. Other government web sites that feature useful nutrition information include: www. The OI Foundation encourages people to read Dr. An examination of clinical trials of vitamin D for the prevention of osteoporosis found that getting to IUs of vitamin D per day decreases the risk of hip and non-vertebral fractures; 5 vitamin D may be even more effective when taken in conjunction with calcium.
Look for a multivitamin that supplies to 1, IU of vitamin D per day. If your multi only has IU of vitamin D, consider taking an extra supplement. Many people may need 2, IU per day or more of vitamin D for adequate blood levels, particularly if they have darker skin, spend winters at higher latitudes such as the northern U.
If you fall into one of these groups, which would include most of the U. Vitamin K, which is found mainly in green, leafy vegetables, likely plays one or more important roles in calcium regulation and bone formation. Low levels of circulating vitamin K have been linked with low bone density, and supplementation with vitamin K shows improvements in biochemical measures of bone health. Data from the Framingham Heart Study also shows an association between high vitamin K intake and reduced risk of hip fracture in men and women, and increased bone mineral density in women.
Postmenopausal women may also want to talk to a health care provider about taking a medication that can strengthen bones. The estrogen in postmenopausal hormones can compensate for the drop in estrogen levels after menopause, helping to prevent—and perhaps even partially reverse—bone loss.
However, hormone replacement therapy has fallen from grace as the mainstay for preventing osteoporosis after results from several studies showed that it increased the risk of breast cancer, stroke, and blood clots. When most people in the United States think of calcium, they immediately think of milk. But should this be so?
Milk is actually only one of many sources of calcium—dark leafy green vegetables and some types of legumes are among the other sources—and there are some important reasons why milk may not be the best source for everyone:. Many people have some degree of lactose intolerance. For them, eating or drinking dairy products causes problems like cramping, bloating, gas, and diarrhea. These symptoms can range from mild to severe. One alternative for those who are lactose intolerant but still enjoy consuming dairy products is to take a pill with meals or when eating a dairy food that contains enzymes that digest milk sugar, or to consume milk that has the lactase enzyme added to it.
Another option is to choose lower lactose dairy foods that may be tolerated if one has a milder form of lactose intolerance.
Nutrition for bones
These include Greek yogurt the straining process removes much of the lactose or aged cheeses like mozzarella, cheddar, or Swiss. There are also many non-dairy alternatives. Many dairy products are high in saturated fats , and a high saturated fat intake is a risk factor for heart disease. High levels of galactose, a sugar released by the digestion of lactose in milk, have been studied as being possibly damaging to the ovaries and leading to ovarian cancer.
Although such associations have not been reported in all studies, there may be potential harm in consuming high amounts of lactose. A recent pooled analysis of 12 prospective cohort studies, which included more than , women, found that women with high intakes of lactose—equivalent to that found in 3 cups of milk per day—had a modestly higher risk of ovarian cancer, compared to women with the lowest lactose intakes.
A diet high in calcium has been implicated as a probable risk factor for prostate cancer. Clearly, although more research is needed, we cannot be confident that high milk or calcium intake is safe. Adequate, lifelong dietary calcium intake is necessary to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Consuming adequate calcium and vitamin D and performing regular, weight-bearing exercise are also important to build maximum bone density and strength.
After age 30, these factors help slow bone loss, although they cannot completely prevent bone loss due to aging. Milk and dairy products are a convenient source of calcium for many people. They are also a good source of protein and are fortified with vitamins D and A. At this time, however, the optimal intake of calcium is not clear, nor is the optimal food source or sources of calcium.
As noted earlier, the National Academy of Sciences currently recommends that people ages 19 to 50 consume 1, milligrams of calcium per day, and that those age 50 or over get 1, milligrams per day. Reaching 1, milligrams per day would usually require drinking two to three glasses of milk per day—or taking calcium supplements—over and above an overall healthy diet. However, these recommendations are based on very short-term studies, and are likely to be higher than what people really need.
Because of unresolved concerns about the risk of ovarian and prostate cancer, it may be prudent to avoid higher intakes of dairy products. At moderate levels, though, consumption of calcium and dairy products has benefits beyond bone health, including possibly lowering the risk of high blood pressure and colon cancer. For individuals who are unable to digest—or who dislike—dairy products and for those who simply prefer not to consume large amounts of such foods, other options are available. Calcium can be found in dark green leafy vegetables, such as kale and collard greens, as well as in dried beans and legumes.